Green Mamba (Dendroaspis Angusticeps) Snake Venom
green mamba snake venom for sale. A toxicovenomic study was performed on the venom of the green mamba, Dendroaspis angusticeps. Forty-two different proteins were identified in the venom of D. angusticeps, in addition to the nucleoside adenosine. The most abundant proteins belong to the three-finger toxin (3FTx) (69.2%) and the Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitor (16.3%) families. Several sub-subfamilies of the 3FTxs were identified, such as Orphan Group XI (Toxin F-VIII), acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (fasciculins), and aminergic toxins (muscarinic toxins, synergistic-like toxins, and adrenergic toxins). Remarkably, no α-neurotoxins were identified. Proteins of the Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitor family include dendrotoxins.
Toxicological screening revealed a lack of lethal activity in all RP-HPLC fractions, except one, at the doses tested. Thus, the overall toxicity depends on the synergistic action of various types of proteins, such as dendrotoxins, fasciculins, and probably other synergistically-acting toxins. Polyspecific antivenoms manufactured in South Africa and India were effective in the neutralization of venom-induced lethality. These antivenoms also showed a pattern of broad immunorecognition of the different HPLC fractions by ELISA and immunoprecipitated the crude venom by gel immunodiffusion. The synergistic mechanism of toxicity constitutes a challenge for the development of effective recombinant antibodies, as it requires the identification of the most relevant synergistic toxins.